IPsec provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. In IPv4, IPsec generates an AH (Authentication Header) that provides packet header integrity using a cryptographic hash. ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) provides integrity using a hash and confidentiality using encryption. Both AH and ESP provide authentication thru key exchange (IKE).
The hashing is typically done with MD5 or SHA and the encrypting is done with 3DES or AES. As known attacks exist for MD5 and 3DES that renders them only slightly better than nothing. SHA-1 and SHA-2 are in a similar state. NIST is currently working on SHA-3. For now, the best is SHA-2 with a long key length and AES.
Interestingly, ESP can also be encrypted using NULL. (See RFC 2410: The NULL Encryption Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec). “NULL does nothing to alter plaintext data. In fact, NULL, by itself, does nothing. NULL provides the means for ESP to provide authentication and integrity without confidentiality.” Put differently, ESP performs the key exchange and hashing only.
Microsoft’s version of IPsec NULL does not quite conform to the RFC. Rather than using a hashing algorithm in conjunction with a NULL encryption, Windows 7 and Windows 2008 skips it altogether. According to Microsoft’s IPsec setup guide, the NULL encapsulation “option specifies that no integrity protection is provided to each network packet in the connection. No AH or ESP header is used to encapsulate the data.” Embraced? Yes. Extended? Not so much.Posted by